Friday, May 29, 2009

The Big Money: What do MBAs know?

Economic crisis has exposed the myth of business-school expertise
Put your ear to the ground near any business school campus, and you will hear the sound of another bubble about to pop. The MBA will soon be joining equities and house titles in the museum of formerly overvalued pieces of paper.

The problem in the short term begins, like so many other fine things these days, in the financial sector. Over the past two decades, about one-third of graduates from top business schools took jobs in finance. But banking will never be what it once was (we can only hope), and consulting — the other major consumer of MBAs — is reeling, too. Couple declining demand with the fact that at the onset of a recession, the supply of students actually rises as the prospectively unemployed look for ways to fill in gaps in their CVs, and "shorting" the MBA looks like a compelling near-term trading strategy.

The really grim news for the MBA, however, is about more than short-term trends. Isn't it just a little suspicious, after all, that the sector that showed the greatest appetite for MBAs was the most grotesquely mismanaged? In fact, the economic crisis has exposed long-standing flaws not just in the modern approach to business education but in the very idea of business education.

The truth is that the relevance of the technical training allegedly offered by the MBA was always overblown. The idea that there is some body of knowledge pertaining to business management that can be packaged up and distributed to the business universe in two-year course-lets — well, it sounded good about a century ago, when it was first conceived. Maybe it still had merit when the schools were turning out only a few thousand graduates per year. But it certainly stopped making sense well before the schools achieved their current level of production of a whopping 140,000 or so graduates per year. The empirical evidence on the contribution of the MBA to individual career performance seems to bear this out — mainly because it doesn't exist. In fact, if the relevance of an M.D. to the performance of doctors were even half as unsubstantiated, we'd probably be fantasizing about tossing a few physicians in jail, too.

The other truth helpfully revealed in the throes of the crisis is that ethics and integrity and social responsibility aren't just optional extras for good business management — unless by "management," you mean "looting." Managers don't need to be trained; they need to be educated — in the sense of "civilized." Unfortunately, a business degree isn't just irrelevant to that purpose; it's positively detrimental.

Now, to be fair, people don't behave like jerks just because they spend two years in business school. After all, as many of my business school friends have pointed out, most of the first year goes into heavy partying, and the second year is really a marathon job fair. No, for the most part, people behave like jerks because nobody stops them from doing so. The charmers at AIG walked away with multimillion-dollar second homes as a reward for exposing their institution and the entire financial system to outrageous risks because it was (so far as we know) a perfectly legal way to make money. The whizzes at Goldman Sachs hedged their supersize profits with underpriced, implicitly publicly backed insurance from AIG for the same reason.

If we ask why no one stopped these people, however, we come right back to business school. It was the market fundamentalism that dominates business school thinking that assured us that markets are self-regulating. It was the management myth — the idea that there is some specialized, teachable body of expertise that constitutes management — that confirmed the strange notion that these people were capable of regulating themselves. And it was the shareholder-value model from Business 101 that said all you need to do is load up managers with tons of stock options and they'll be sure to do the right thing. These aren't just ideas that happen to be taught at business school; these are the ideas that provide the rationale for the existence of the schools. The only semblance of a theory behind modern business education is that it purportedly produces "experts" in shareholder-value maximization who are capable of forming an ideal, self-regulating market.

It's a neat theory, of course, and pretty radical, too. But not since the fall of the Soviet Union has a system of belief woken up with so many parking tickets on its windshield.

The reality is that business school is now chiefly a community of intention. It brings together people who share certain career aspirations — for the most part, to make big bucks — and occupies their time teaching them a few technical things that they don't need to know, along with a code of conduct that says, in essence, whatever is legal is ethical; and if it makes money, it's a positive duty. It's now clear that we would have all been much better off if, instead of cloistering these people on fancy campuses with world-class golf courses, we'd have sent them off to do two years of national service.

For the benefit of beleaguered business school academics, it's worth pointing out that a world with fewer MBAs is not necessarily a world without business studies. On the contrary, once researchers dispense with the idea that they have to package their material for the purported benefit of junior managers everywhere, they could actually study business. Maybe they could even learn to criticize it. Maybe they and their students could even learn to report on it, the way that journalists used to do.

In the meantime, since the national-service idea probably isn't going to gain much traction, I suggest that it's time to go long on the humanities. Now that we've tried business with savages, perhaps it's time to give the educated a shot.

How to manage 10 sticky situations at work

Employee romances, hammered help, religious zealots and more

As an entrepreneur, you'll run into sticky situations at work, whether it's grumbling employees or distractions, that get in the way of productivity.

Dealing with weirdness in the office is never easy, but it's essential to running a successful company. "Human resources problems that get ignored have a really nasty habit of not going away," says Margaret Hart Edwards, a shareholder at employment law firm Littler Mendelson.

Never fear: The experts are here to offer their advice for handling 10 sticky HR situations that might otherwise leave you floored and fumbling.

1. Two employees start dating or break up.

Forty-six percent of employees have been involved in an office romance, according to Vault's "2008 Office Romance Survey." But office relationships can create all sorts of awkward morale problems for employers, as well as legal dangers, such as sexual harassment claims. Given the potential risks, "the employer does have to intervene," Edwards says.

Meet privately with the employees and have them state that it's a voluntary, consensual relationship to protect against a sexual harassment claim. They should keep things professional, meaning no visible PDA or sharing of company information (e.g., sales leads) in ways that could put their co-workers at a disadvantage.

Also talk about the potential of a breakup and the professionalism you expect. If they're at-will employees, they should know you could fire them for inappropriate behavior.

2. An employee shares too much personal information with co-workers.

This is the employee who talks in excruciating detail about his impending divorce, recent doctor's visit or latest romantic relationship. There's no topic that's off limits — and for co-workers, there's nowhere to hide.

Tim Young, founder and CEO of multimillion-dollar software firm Socialcast, has dealt with "TMI" employees at the company's Irvine, Calif., headquarters. He takes these employees to lunch and brings up the topic. Says Young, 27, "You can coach them on reducing the amount of information they're providing to [other] employees and refocus them back on the company."

3. A laid-off employee turns vengeful.

An angry ex-employee can cause a lot of havoc, from 3 a.m. prank calls to hacking into the company's computer system.

If he takes things too far, file a property damage report with the police. Even if you're working only on suspicion that an ex-employee is behind the mischief, you can explain why you believe the ex-employee may be the culprit. "If you're lucky, the cops might call on the ex-employee and investigate it," Edwards says.

Plan ahead for ex-employees who could pose a problem. Research security companies and know how to file a restraining order, if necessary. Treat employees how you would like to be treated, too. Says Edwards, "[Lay] people off in the most respectful and humane way possible to try to minimize this sort of behavior."

4. Employees wear politics or religion on their sleeve.

Religion and politics are topics best avoided, but some employees will work them into the conversation.

There's a big difference between the employee who simply says "God bless you" and the employee who tries to convert his co-workers. As the employer, you may ask an employee to refrain from religious conversation around fellow co-workers who find it objectionable and could file harassment or hostile work environment claims. Be careful, however, not to discriminate against the employee because of her religious expression, says James M. Craig, an employment attorney with Thompson, Sizemore, Gonzalez & Hearing.

Remind employees that politics can make people angry and distract from the work. Suggest they save these discussions for break times.

5. Employees think a co-worker got an undeserved promotion.

Nelson suggests meeting with the employees who have a problem with the promotion. Talk to them about what you're hearing and let them offer their side. Tell them why this co-worker received the promotion, focusing on skill sets instead of personality traits. Then ask them to stop the negativity. "State that it's inappropriate to complain about a co-worker and that you would like them to stop doing so," says Bob Nelson, author of "1,001 Ways to Reward Employees."

Feeling passed over, ignored or underappreciated is often at the heart of this issue. If an employee feels bitter that he wasn't considered, work out a plan for developing his skills. Employees who feel heard, appreciated and upwardly mobile will be more likely to offer their congratulations.

6. An employee is planning a wedding and annoying co-workers.

Planning a wedding is a happy time in a person's life, but not if you're the planner's co-worker picking up the slack for someone more interested in place settings than spreadsheets.

This problem can fester until other employees want to throw more than rice at the betrothed. You shouldn't hold your peace as the employer. Pull this employee aside and offer your congratulations. Then say productivity is down and that her focus during work hours should be on the work. "It's a performance problem and should be addressed that way," Edwards says.

If you're generous, you might offer some short-term scheduling flexibility. If the employee balks and files for divorce from your company, maybe it's for the best.

7. An employee who needs to drive on the job gets a DUI.

Some states allow employees with DUIs to obtain a work permit to drive on the job during the suspension period, Craig says. Of course, the biggest risk you take is if the employee continues drinking and hits someone while working. "If you have reason to (believe they're still drinking) and didn't do anything, you're looking at a negligent retention claim," Craig says.

If an employee is suspended for six months and can't get a work permit, "there's not a whole lot you can do," Craig says. At this point, it's up to you whether to reassign this employee to a desk job. You're also within your rights to terminate employment, but be aware that the Americans with Disabilities Act protects recovering addicts. So check whether the employee has entered a recovery program before you go down that road.

8. An employee's substance-abuse problem is becoming obvious.

Young has had employees who developed substance abuse problems. He meets privately with the employee to discuss performance and behavioral problems, then he directs him toward the employee assistance program provided through Socialcast's outside HR provider. "It's important to try to dictate a plan of action," Young says.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration law expects you to provide a safe workplace, so have a drug and alcohol policy. Every state allows drug testing on a suspicion basis, and employers can require employees to submit to drug testing as a condition of continued employment, says Max Muller, author of The Manager's Guide to HR: Hiring, Firing, Performance Evaluations, Documentation, Benefits, and Everything Else You Need to Know. The law is firmly on your side if the employee isn't in recovery. Says Muller, "There is no law that covers a current user of illegal drugs."

9. There's conflict between childless employees and working parents.

Employers who ignore this delicate issue end up with unhappy workplaces where childless workers are always being asked to fill in the gaps for working parents who leave early and say they can't work weekends. "On occasion is one thing, but over time, [it] can become a habit of treating one class of employees differently from another," Nelson says.

He suggests a rotation system for projects and overtime, and allowing equal access to time off without a reason. Ask employees what would work, too. Says Nelson, "Sometimes when a policy is created and monitored by the staff, it has the best chance of being viewed as fair by everyone."

10. An employee is taking advantage of company money or equipment.

Unfortunately, every employer will have employees who secretly take from the company. In fact, hidden employee fraud filches 7 percent of a company's revenue every year, according to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. "The dollars lost to fraud can grow quickly," says Tracy Coenen, a forensic accountant and the author of Essentials of Corporate Fraud.

Employee pilfering increases in tough times, when an employee might take home a roll of paper towels or buy unnecessary office supplies just to get a free $20 coffee card. Coenen suggests writing a clear fraud policy that educates employees about what's unacceptable.

For larger cases of fraud, Coenen advises small-business employers to contact a fraud investigator and an employment attorney for legal advice. "The worst thing a company can do," she says, "is ignore a fraud problem."

Copyright © 2009, Inc.

In all honesty, here are some ways to spot a liar


Everyone fudges the truth a little, but how do you pick out the whoppers?

There are plenty of dangerously skilled liars — and not just the Bernie Madoffs and Jeffrey Skillings of the world. Indeed, under the right (or wrong) circumstances, we're all guilty fibbers.

According to an oft-cited 1996 University of Virginia study led by psychologist Bella DePaulo, lying is part of the human condition. Over the course of one week, DePaulo and her colleagues asked 147 participants, aged 18 to 71, to record in a diary all of their social interactions and all of the lies they told during them. On average, each person lied just over 10 times, and only seven participants claimed to have been completely honest

To be fair, most of the time we're just trying to be nice. (When your wife asks if you enjoyed the dinner she cooked, most husbands who know what's good for them say, "It was delicious.") Such "false positive" lies are delivered 10 to 20 times more often than spurious denials of culpability, according to DePaulo's research. Other studies show that men and women lie with equal frequency, though women are more likely to lie to make other people feel good, while men tend to lie to make themselves look better. As for who we hoodwink, "we lie less frequently to our significant others because we're more invested in those relationships," says Jeffrey Hancock, associate professor of communication at Cornell University.

The question is: How to know when someone's selling you swampland in Florida?

Traditional polygraph tests, around in some form or fashion since the early 1900s, use sensors to detect fluctuations in blood pressure, pulse, respiration and sweat in response to probing questions. Two problems with polygraphs: First, they only work about 80 percent of the time, according to the American Polygraph Association. Second, it's not like we are going to carry all that hardware to a business meeting or a bar. And that means relying on our own very limited vigilance.

"Although there are some ways in which liars behave differently from truth-tellers, there are no perfectly reliable cues to deception," admits DePaulo, author of more than a dozen deception studies. "Cues to deception differ according to factors such as the type of lie and the motivation for getting away with it."

While there is no surefire on-the-spot way to sniff out dissemblers, there are some helpful tactics for uncovering untruths.

Liars often give short or one-word responses to questions, while truth tellers are more likely to flesh out their answers. According to a 2003 study by DePaulo, a liar provides fewer details and uses fewer words than an honest person, and talks for a smaller percentage of the conversation.

Skilled liars don't break a sweat, but the rest of us get a little fidgety. Four possible giveaways: shifty eyes, higher vocal pitch, perspiration and heavier breathing. Of course, not everyone who doesn't meet your gaze is a liar.

"Certain behavioral traits, like averting eye contact, could be cultural and not indicative of a liar," says Joseph Buckley, president of John E. Reid & Associates, which has provided interview and interrogation training to more than 500,000 law enforcement agents to date. The company is also the creator of the Reid Technique, a nine-step interrogation process employed by many U.S. law enforcement agencies.

Liars are often reluctant to admit ordinary storytelling mistakes. When honest people tell stories, they may realize partway through that they left out some details and would unselfconsciously backtrack to fill in holes. They also may realize a previous statement wasn't quite right, and go back and explain further. Liars, on the other hand, "are worried that someone might catch them in a lie and are reluctant to admit to such ordinary imperfections," says DePaulo.

Yet another clue: imprecise pronouns. To psychologically distance themselves from a lie, people often pepper their tales with second- and third-person pronouns like "you," "we" and "they," says Hancock. Liars are also more likely to ask that questions be repeated and begin responses with phrases like, "to tell you the truth," and "to be perfectly honest," says Reid.

When telling the truth, people often make hand gestures to the rhythm of their speech. Hands emphasize points or phrases — a natural and compelling technique when they actually believe the points they're making. The less certain will keep gesticulations in check, says Hancock.

The mode of communication matters too. Studies show that we are less likely to lie face-to-face than over the phone or the Web. In one week-long study of 30 college students, Hancock observed that the phone was the weapon of choice, enabling 37 percent of all the lies, versus 27 percent during face-to-face exchanges, 21 percent using Instant Messaging and just 14 percent via e-mail.

Will we ever come clean? Not likely. Guilty stomach knots aside, the subjects in DePaulo's study confessed that they would tell 75 percent of the lies again if given the opportunity. Chances are, they'd get away with it.

© 2009

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Уроки Photoshop: Основы рисования и смешивания

Этот урок научит новичков основам живописи, смешивания цветов. Всё будет описано очень подробно. Урок выполняется в adobe photoshop cs2 илиps7, более ранние версии мной не использовались.
Я настраиваю область моей работы, как мне удобно.

Шаг 1
Откроем новый документ. Я создаю документ 3000x3000 пикс. 300dpi, но если вы только учитесь, то можно делать меньших размеров.(чем больше изображение и выше точек на дюйм, тем больше деталей можно вставить). Создадим новый слой. И на этом слое попытаемся изобразить то, какое изображение нам нужно. Создаём новый слой, понизим его opacity до 50% и прорисуем на нём наше изображение уже более чистыми линиями. Сделав это, предыдущий слой можно удалить. Теперь у нас есть хороший чистый рисунок и мы будем с ним работать.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 2.
Создадим новый слой. Изменим режим смешивания на "multiply". Когда мы применяем "multiply", то цвет на нижних слоях затемняется, но чёрный цвет остаётся тот же самый. Теперь выберем тон цвета кожи нашего рисунка. Возьмём твёрдую кисть и закрасим всю кожу, выбранным цветом. Используем инструмент eraser с твёрдыми краями и сотрём в тех местах, где мы вышли за границы изображения.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 3.
Теперь у нас чистое изображение, покрытое выбранным цветом кожи. Теперь поставим замочек на этот слой, который находится в окне слоёв, самый левый, он заблокирует все прозрачные пикселы. Выберем более тёмный оттенок нашего цвета, и используя ту же самую кисть заштрихуем на нужных местах.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 4.
То же самое, как и в шаге 3, но более светлым оттенком.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 5.
Теперь пришло выбрать инструмент smuge tool с мягкими краями в панели инструментов. Ставим strength на 100%, (для новичков можно уменьшить). Это регулирование находится вверху экрана. Теперь начинаем размазывать цвета, чтобы получить желаемую форму. Поначалу это довольно сложно, но всегда можно исправить рисунок.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 6.
Теперь мы размазали и счастливы. Всё выглядит, как мы хотели. Теперь выберем инструмент burn tool в панеле инструментов. Настройка midtone, exposure на 35%, инструмент мягкая кисть и затемняем те области, которые должны быть более тёмные, чтобы дать больше глубины теням.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 7.
Теперь выберем dodge tool в панеле инструментов. Настройки: midtones и exposure 35%, кисть с мягкими краями и придадим светлым областям мягкости и глубины.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 8.
Если вы создаёте рисунок для комиксов, то пропустите следующие 2 шага. Сольём наши два слоя. Теперь у нас один слой. Выбираем инструмент smudge tool и поработаем над нашими контурными линиями.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 9.
Выберем резинку с мягкими краями (если берёте с острыми, то диаметр уменьшите) и тщательно вытрем наши контуры. Если получилось что-то не так, возвращаемся назад в окне history.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Шаг 10,
Теперь добавим деталей. На коже, которую мы нарисовали, добавим несколько острых линий и деталей в складках, потому что мы их сильно размазали. Создаём новый слой и передвигаем его вниз в панели слоёв. И заполняем промежутки нужным цветом. Используем ту же самую технику для глаз, рта, что и раньше. Но режим смешивания не меняем на "multiply, потому что рисуем на слое ниже. Также ставим замок на слой, как и раньше. Используем инструменты smuge tool, burn tool, dodge tool, рисуем тени и блики. Добавляем разные мелкие подробности, изменяя размеры инструментов.
Основы рисования и смешивания

Это только одна из техник, применяемых в фотошопе, из бесконечно многих. Я надеюсь, что у новичков всё получится, и у них появятся свои идеи. Также они приобретут опыт. Если хотя бы несколько человек этот метод используют, я буду рада.


Monday, May 4, 2009

Две группы ученых создали новый тип полной маскировки

Давненько уже не было на новостей о метаматериалах — особых оптических объектах, позволяющих скрывать те или иные трехмерные предметы. Новости поступили сразу от ученых из Корнеллского университета (США), а также от специалистов из Калифорнийского университета в Беркли (тоже США). Работая независимо друг от друга, две команды инженеров заявили о создании прототипа оптической системы, способной делать невидимыми трехмерные объекты.

По сообщениям, оба прототипа работают схожим образом: объект скрывается за несколькими зеркалами, абсолютно плоскими за счет кремниевых наноэлементов. Описания принципов работы системы пестрят сложными научными терминами, поверить которым можно будет только после того, как хотя бы одна из групп ученых не только заявит о создании прототипа, но и продемонстрирует его работу непосредственно в действии. Это будет куда более впечатляющим.

6 Examples of Workplace Rudeness OR few DONT"S of Business Etiquette

Are you rude?

You rarely steal candy from toddlers.

You don't trip people on crutches anymore.

You can't even remember the last time you made someone cry.

All in all, you could do a lot worse. You might not be in the running for a Good Samaritan of the Year Award, but you're a pretty decent person.

But how about your co-workers? Plenty of our daily interactions at work are befuddling. You're often left wondering if people are deliberately rude or just ignorant of their behavior. After all, you'd like to think people aren't going out of their way to inconvenience you.

With that in mind, we've taken a look at unappreciated behavior that rears its head in an effort to explain why it's rude and why you shouldn't do it (or why someone shouldn't do it to you).

1. You know what's rude? When someone -- 
Interruptions are offensive on many levels. When you interrupt someone, you suggest that your time and ideas are more important than everyone else's and that you have no interest in listening to what they have to say.

A rare offense is forgivable, but habitual interruption is problematic, says professional coach Susan B. Wilson. "Some folks interrupt incessantly, whether you are on the phone, in a meeting, deep in thought or in another conversation."

2. No thanks
Aside from the phrases "Because I said so!" and "No," perhaps the most common thing you'll hear parents say to a child is, "And what do we say?" The prompt is, of course, for the child to thank someone for a kind gesture -- a practice lost on many adults.

"The following statistic bears repeating," Wilson says. "In a 2002 Public Agenda survey, 48 percent of adults expressed only 'sometimes' encountering people who made an effort to say 'please' and 'thank you'; 16 percent said they saw such behavior 'practically never.'" A few words to show gratitude can put someone in a good mood -- or at the very least can keep someone out of a foul mood. Why not do it?

3. Table manners
Kara C.* has her share of venting to do about workplace rudeness, and at the top of the list is the lack of housekeeping manners she witnesses. In her company's communal kitchen, you won't have to look hard to see evidence that someone has recently enjoyed a snack in one of the cups or bowls littering the counter. She wants to remind her colleagues that maids don't work in the office, so they should clean up after themselves.

4. That's just #@*%ing rude!
Language is very subjective, and everybody has his or her own unique way of speaking. One person's "Howdy" is another person's "What's up?" When it comes to R-rated language, one person's "hell" is another person's "H-E-double hockey sticks." And that's something you should remember when interacting with others at work. It's less about the profanity itself and more about the fact that you don't care if it bothers the people around you.

5. Yes, all of us can hear you now
Teenagers are very private about phone conversations. They might be young, but they will give you a scowl that makes you feel like you're the child and they're the adult if you eavesdrop. Strange, then, how a dozen years later, many people do a 180 on this practice and seem to want everyone to hear their conversations.

Cubicles are the norm in many workplaces, so one person's speakerphone conversation becomes an entire floor's business. Never mind how annoying it is to hear a conversation you're not a part of; think how bothersome it is to try to concentrate on work when someone's blathering in your ears. Rather than force your call on the whole department, invest in a headset or just hold the receiver in your hand.

6. I'm sorry, do I know you?
When you're walking down the hall and a co-worker is walking toward you, give a smile, a nod or some other greeting. No one's asking you to engage in a bear hug or to pretend you two are best friends. All anyone wants is an acknowledgement that you see them and that you're not going out of your way to avoid having any contact with them.

Why is this important? Well, think about the alternative: You walk down the hall and pretend not to see them by averting your eyes. You'd rather do anything but give a quick acknowledgement to this person. What kind of message does that send? training cemter - Business Etiquette Training Class - 8 hours - 99 AZN

Saturday, May 2, 2009

17 секретов счастливых людей

1. Забудьте прошлое. Вы не будете счастливы, пока несете тяжелое бремя прошлого. Вы совершили ошибку? У вас был неприятный опыт в прошлом? Отпустите эти воспоминания - они не дают вам развиваться. Сосредоточьтесь на настоящем.

2. Несите ответственность за свою жизнь. Чтобы стать счастливым, нужно прежде всего стать свободным. Независимо от того, насколько плоха ситуация, вы всегда выбираете сами, как именно вам поступить. И ответственность за этот выбор несете только вы. Не вините в своих неудачах кого-то еще.

3. Выстраивайте отношения. Это как раз то, что и дает нам счастье. Любовь должна оставаться главным приоритетом.

4. Увлечения. Они также доставляют нам маленькие радости. Так что круг своих увлечений надо постоянно расширять. Таким образом вы расширяете свои пути к гармонии. Вы даже не представляете, сколько интересных вещей нас окружает.

5. Создайте себя. Определите для себя свои принципы, и действуйте в соответствии с ними. Только так вы всегда будете верны себе.

6. Кто вы? Не живите чужой жизнью, чтобы оправдать чьи-то ожидания. Люди могут ждать от вас чего угодно - не идите у них на поводу.

7. Цель в жизни. Для того, чтобы стать счастливым, вам нужна жизненная цель. Иначе вы будете рассеяны и несобраны. Ваша цель - это ваш жизненный стержень.

8. Цените то, что имеете. Быть счастливым легко, если вы благодарны. К сожалению, разглядеть то, чего у нас нет, намного тяжелее, чем то, что мы уже имеем. Мы не умеем воспринимать обстоятельства как должное. Посмотрите вокруг - может, у вас уже есть причины быть счастливым?

9. Мыслите позитивно. Счастливые люди ни на минуту не допускают мрачных мыслей. Они на все смотрят оптимистически, насколько бы не была плоха ситуация.

10. Творите. Творчество придает силы и вовлекает вас в состояние позитива: вы просто не замечаете неудач вокруг вас.

11. Начните с того, что у вас уже есть. Счастливый человек не ждет всю жизнь определенного уровня заработка или высокой должности, чтобы стать счастливым. Радоваться можно уже тому, что у вас есть. Глупый ищет счастья за горами, умный - под ногами (Джеймс Оппенгейм).

12. Меняйтесь. Счастье приходит к тому, кто постоянно растет, развивается, учится. Меняйтесь, ищите что-то новое, направляйте вашу жизнь на новый уровень.

13. Используйте свои таланты. Во-первых, вы должны открыть в себе эти таланты, а во-вторых - раскрыть. Самый верный путь к счастью - найти тот источник заработка, который бы помогал развивать ваши таланты.

14. Не зацикливайтесь на мелочах. Часто мелочи - это враги вашего счастья. Помните - даже мелкие трещин топят корабль, ведь они растут и со временем становятся настоящими пробоинами.

15. Усмиряйте ваши амбиции. Амбиции - это не плохо, но они не должны брать верх над здравым смыслом. Иначе вы просто переоцените себя, и станете неудачником и посмешищем.

16. Делайте счастливыми других. Это самый действенный способ стать счастливым. На пути к собственному счастью постарайтесь делать добро людям, и вы увидите, что это - уже счастье. Счастье никогда не приходит через эгоизм, только через самоотдачу.

17. Сострадайте. Это самая высшая форма самоотдачи. Чаще думайте о людях вокруг себя.